Slippery road (wet pavement, snow or ice crust on the road) can not provide a normal car traction with the web. Such car becomes difficult to manage. Skidding or demolition machines are the most frequently encountered problems with the management.
By itself, a skid or demolition is not a critical issue. However, in the winter time because of this there is the majority of road accidents. Naturally, that drivers are interested in how to avoid loss of control, which is the cause and how to act when a loss of stability of the car on the road could not be avoided.
It is not an easy task, since it includes several components:
• As fast as possible to classify the type of skidding or demolition
• Decide on the sequence of actions
• To avoid incorrect maneuvers
The problem is further complicated by the fact that different types of loss of stability and manageability necessary to take different actions. The following will be considered the most typical situations.
Demolition of the front wheels.
Demolition of the front wheels is called their lateral slip during cornering or during emergency maneuvers. It arises because of the negative slope of the road on the corner, a strong crosswind, improperly inflated wheels, the use of tires with worn tread, cornering too fast, etc.
The vehicle is moving by inertia at an angle to the front wheels as their grip is insufficient to compensate this force. Simply put, when you turn the steering wheel during the demolition of the machine continues to move the front axle straight. If the driver starts to extreme braking, the vehicle becomes totally unmanageable, and often crashes or into oncoming traffic, or on the roadside.
This problem is typical for the rear-wheel and all-wheel drive cars, which the front and rear wheels have a multidirectional traction, thereby arbitrarily change the trajectory cornering. High-profile tires, which are often equipped SUVs, only aggravate the demolition of the front wheels.
Experienced drivers are recommended to use these techniques in the lateral sliding the front wheel:
• Engine brake, switching to a lower gear
• Use smooth slowdown to transfer the main effort of traction on the front outside wheel (it is important to avoid blocking the wheels of the sharp deceleration)
• With sufficient bandwidth traffic to return the wheel to its original position, and then re-start rotate, but no sudden movements
Skid with a small amplitude.
The car puts on a slippery road due to sudden maneuvers, strong crosswinds, road irregularities, sharp pressure on the accelerator pedal, and others. If during movement occurs skid with a small amplitude, then stabilize the car with rear wheel drive is easy. To do this, you need to quickly turn the steering wheel in the same direction, where the vehicle is stored without changing the position of the hands on the steering wheel (the same grip).
The meaning of this maneuver is that the front wheel to align parallel to the direction of movement. This should reduce the engine speed. Such actions lead to the formation of the rear wheels of small inhibitory effect. After aligning the wheel returns to its original position. If this is not done, there is a pendulum swing axle – rhythmic skid (described below).
The front-drive car from skidding displays even easier. Just add the engine speed and the leading front wheels themselves should “pull” the car from skidding.
All-wheel drive cars in need of wheel alignment, as well as rear-wheel drive. However, after a reset of turns, you must immediately press the accelerator pedal to the front drive wheels have enough traction.
Skid with a large amplitude.
If the vehicle is stabilized at a low amplitude drift, deep drift occurs when the angle of the trajectory reaches high values. The general order of action is the same as in the skid with small amplitude. However, there are some features:
• Steering Wheel should work quickly with both hands, placing them side sectors, one hand without changing grip “donut”
• When the taxi is necessary to find the angle at which the balancing stabilization is maximal
• Alternately press the gas pedal and brakes that sodast load on the drive axle and steering wheels
A characteristic feature of the critical drift – a balancing of forces routed to the car. He briefly lost control. The machine or aligned itself or starts to rotate. Vehicle stability at this point is critical. Lateral stability can be restored by the following actions:
• Rapidly turning the steering wheel with both hands on the sides of sectors grabbing his cross
• Rapidly turning the steering wheel with one hand, rolling the grip on the back of the hand or palm (effective for trucks and buses, in which the steering wheel is located horizontally)
• Quickly with one hand (second hand performs a “twist”)
The rotation of the vehicle.
Often, even the measures taken do not bring results, and the machine starts to run on the road. In this case the main audio means a brake, and, operating the steering wheel in the direction of rotation to tighten. Having waited until the machine will not be in the way or at an angle to it (ie turned 180, 360, 540, 720 degrees, and so on), press the accelerator pedal, making “a police U-turn” and add revolutions . This technique is quite difficult even for an experienced driver.
The rhythmic skid.
Rhythmic skid called transverse swinging of the rear axle with increasing amplitude that occurs due to resonance vibrations.There it is when you try to perform several maneuvers that are oppositely character – for example, a sharp rotation of the steering wheel in both directions when passing obstacles or forced overtaking maneuver.
Align the machine can be sharp jerk wheel as it enters the second pulse is skidding to the right for compensation of throttling pulse rotation. The driver must proceed with caution. If a taxi or throttling perform at the wrong time, the situation will only get worse.
When the car starts to skid sideways slide, the driver must first reduce its speed. You can use the managed side impact snowy parapet. If the car has a rear actuator should calculate touch rear wing or side surface of one of the rear wheels. The front-drive car, “hitting” it is necessary in the area of the front wing or the wheel. On four wheel drive “contact” is carried out across the lateral surface (it should be noted that the high-wheel-drive SUV sitting can thus roll over).
Given the fact that the loss of stability and controllability of the vehicle on the road usually occurs due to driver error, a major challenge of preventing this problem is to choose the optimal mode of motion in these road conditions and timely response to the transition to the trajectory of movement in unmanageable.