ford-logoFord Motor (Ford Motor Company), an American automobile company, specializing in the production of passenger cars brand “Ford”, “Mercury”, “Lincoln”, trucks, various agricultural machinery. “Ford” owns “Jaguar”. Headquartered in Dearborn (Michigan), near which was once a farm parents of Henry Ford. The company was founded by Henry Ford in 1903 and immediately thought of its creator intended for the mass release of cheap car. Initially, this was a model of «A», in 1908 it was replaced by a model «T», christened cartoonists “tin Lizzie.” The success of the new models were so great that the company is constantly expanding Ford could not cope with the orders. In the first year of production of this model were sold 10,660 vehicles, which broke all records in the automotive industry at the time. The “Ford Motor” in 1913 for the first time in the world in the production method of standardization was introduced interchangeable parts manufacturing and vehicle assembly conveyor technology that has allowed just one year to raise labor productivity by 40-60%. At the same time, and wages and salaries increased so that exceeded the average for the industry twice. The enterprises introduced the eight-hour day. By mid-1914 produced 500 thousand models «T», by 1923 every second car in America was made at the “Ford Motor”. In 1920-1930-ies “Ford Motor” active opening offices in many countries, including cooperating with Soviet  (the creation of plants GAZ, AMO). While Henry Ford treated the October Revolution sharply negative, however, he believed that  has a great future if it will take the path of industrial development. In 1922, “Ford Motor” acquired company “Lincoln”, the management of which was entrusted to Edsel Ford. The authoritarian management style of the senior Ford became a favorite target of the left press, Ford’s refusal to tolerate trade unions in their enterprises this is a campaign of harassment. However, the Americans by the end of the 1920s, tired of the monotonous model «T». Forward competitors pulled out of “General Motors”, “Ford Motor” model answers “Ford A», whose popularity still lags behind the “Chevrolet” and “Buicks.” Great Depression of 1929 dramatically reduces the sales of cars. Twice as wages fall. In 1932, the start of mass production of the V-shaped 8-cylinder engines. Ford Motor Company is the first company that has managed to release eight monolithic block. It will take many more years before Ford’s competitors will be able to start mass production of reliable V-8 engine. Meanwhile, the car Ford and its reliable engine became favorites practical Americans. Opened an assembly plant in Cologne. The relatively successful line of cars was “Mercury”, launched in 1938. Company nominally governs Edsel Ford, but his authority is not comparable with the authority of his father. In cases begins stagnation that lasted until the Second World War, when military orders to fix the case. From 1942 to 47 years the production of civilian cars stopped abruptly, as the company sent all its efforts on military needs. Giant wartime program, launched by Edsel Ford, produced 8600 four-engine bombers, V-24 Liberator, 57000 engines for aircraft and more than quarter of a million tanks, anti-tank and other plants. Military equipment in less than 3 years. After the brief reign of the old man’s Ford (Edsel died in 1943) in 1945, power passed to Henry Ford, the second, breathed new life into the company. Ford Jr. reorganizes recruitment system, uses for the development of the strategy of the company known to him from the war methods of “brainstorming” invited a group of systems analysts. In 1949, Ford Motor Company sells about 807,000 vehicles, increasing its profits from 94 million (the previous year) to 177 million dollars and reaching the highest sales volume in the period since 1929. The postwar reorganization program has enabled Henry Ford II quickly restore the health of the company. The result was the construction of 44 production plants, 18 assembly plants, 32 warehouses of spare parts, two huge test sites and 13 engineering and research laboratories in the United States. Running series models “Thunderbird» (Thunderbird) in 1955 and “Mustang» (Mustang), the now classic, consolidated financial position of the “Ford Motor”. Attractive 4-seater Mustang in 1965 became the darling of America. In the first 100 days it was sold 100 000 of these machines. Total sales for the year totaled 418,812 vehicles, which brought the company $ 1 billion profit. In 1968, the first 1.6-liter model Escort Twin Cam began her sports career, successfully opened the season and winning the race ring in Ireland, Denmark tulips, Austrian Alps, the Acropolis Rally in Scotland for eight weeks. By the end of his first season Escort won the famous 1000 Lakes Rally in Finland, which helped Ford to take a strong position in the World Rally Championship new cars. The introduction of the electronic speed control of the car. Models with the design Twin Cam Escort continued to win around the world in 1969 and 1970. It is very common in the 1970-1980 years of the Western European model Ford Taunus / Cortina. Manufacturing family of universals (Kombi) Ford Taunus/Cortina began in 1970 (in Germany model called Taunus, existed since the 63 rd). The car is produced in almost all of the then European factories Ford, Cortina and the name was given to the English version of the “right-hand drive.” In January 1976, production went substantially revised design model Taunus/Cortina second generation. Since 1976, with the launch of the bonnet utility model Ford Econoline E-series new generation began to use elements of the chassis, engine and transmission, similar to SUVs and pickups Series F. In 1992, the market brought a new range of comfortable 7-, 8-, 12-, and 15-seat all-metal vans and four-door wagon with a body. Family Fiesta has been around for over 20 years – the first generation has appeared in 1976. The life of the current generation of models, which began at the Geneva Motor Show, 89, is coming to a close. For 11 years, the family of Fiesta twice (in 1995 and 1999.) Are at serious restyling, so that to this day remains quite modern. Crown Victoria is one of the most popular models in the US (in the police, taxi hire, in the secondary market). Production in Canada. Debut model was held in 1978. A new generation car came out in December 1990. Update appearance – 1998. The full-size wagon Vgonso 1980 was a four-wheel drive pickup with a short base. Permeability has turned out quite high, so the model long remained popular (especially in Alaska), even after the emergence of more modern models. Vgopso began in the first half of 1990 one of the leaders in the market among the used cars of this type. In 1990 replaced the model Vgopso put on the conveyor more practical five-door wagons Ford Explorer. Ford Escort produced in the US and Europe as well as in Argentina in three body styles: five-seat sedan, five-door wagon and coupe ZX2. Front-Generation European Ford Escort (Mod. 80) with a transverse engine layout was introduced in August 1980. Production of American Ford Escort and Mercury Lynx continued until the summer of 1990. They were replaced by models developed on the platform of the Japanese Mazda 323. In January 1995, has been improved design of the car, there was a 4×4 version with an engine of 1.6 liters (1997 edition 4×4 model discontinued). In 1998 he was presented convertible. In September 1982, went on sale a model with rear-wheel drive Sierra family five-door hatchback and wagon (Kombi), and the start of production of the three-door all-wheel drive model (XR4? 4) with a 2.8-liter V6 engine was postponed until September 1983,. In November 1986, the launch of version 4×4 Ford Scorpio. At the end of 1991 the presentation roomy wagon Scorpio Turnir. In the summer of 1998, the production of Scorpio stopped, and Ford of Europe has decided to make the company’s flagship model Mondeo. Since the mid-1980s produced “Taurus» (Taurus). This model was named Car of 1986, and in 1987 it became a bestseller in America. Streamlined cars futuristic design with beautiful names Taurus and Sable, have become a major milestone in the transition of Ford to the production of a new generation of cars 80s – economical (in full compliance with regulations established by Congress), high-tech and aesthetically perfect. In the same year It held 75% of the purchase of shares of the company Aston Martin-Lagonda. Purchase of “Jaguar” in 1990 further increases the range of Ford models in comfort nothing reminiscent of the “Tin Lizzie”, and a year later for the production of multi-purpose vehicle Ford Galaxy joint venture with the German corporation Volkswagen. The company is open to innovation and change; I wonder what “Ford Motor”, a pioneer in the introduction of the assembly line, the first among large corporations and refused it, as modern working more efficiently do the work, which is an element of self-creation. Ford Explorer, which debuted in January 1990, on the dimension is between competing models Blazer and Tahoe, and for many years the best-selling of all SUV’ov the North American market (about 400 thousand per year). The debut of a new generation of Explorer, the 2001 model year. In 1993 he published a model of Ford Mondeo, which immediately set new safety standards in its class. The following year this car was voted Car of the Year in Europe and has become a favorite among customers. For 1994 it was also the new minivan Windstar. In the same year, the purchase of the remaining shares of the company Aston Martin-Lagonda. Ford Windstar was first shown in January 1994. In 1998, the model has undergone restyling. Available in Canada. The first show of the model Ford EUROPE Galaxy took place in February 1995 in Geneva. At the Geneva Motor Show 2000 it was presented an upgraded model with a new design. In 1996, the company got off the assembly line 250 millionth car. Realization of the model Ka. Ford EUROPE Puma, small class sports coupe, created based on the Ford Fiesta, was first presented at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1997. FORD Focus, a long tradition of bearing the name Turnier. The European premiere of the car with a hatchback was held in early 1998 in Geneva. In 1998, Ford Motor Company becomes the 2nd largest producer of cars and trucks on the total index. In 2000, an international jury of 126 automotive journalists, summarizing unprecedented competition “Car of the Century” (“Car of the Century”), chose “cars of all time,” the legendary T. Ford Tin Lizzie (“Lizzie Tins”) became the first car assembly which was arranged on a conveyor belt on a massive scale. The new method allowed to begin high-volume production of cars, improve quality, and dramatically reduce costs. That made the car assembly conveyor means of transportation available to all. And indeed the first in a series of mass-produced cars was Ford’s model. Ford Escape compact SUV was first introduced as a prototype in January 2000 in Detroit. Development was carried out jointly with Mazda. Car production is carried out at the plant in Kansas City. Ford EUROPE Maverick, a compact four-wheel drive SUV, the European counterpart Ford Escape. C 2000 is available, together with the company on the basis of Mazda Mazda Tribute. New Ford Maverick combines SUV signs and road car. 2001 – the company is a fundamentally new model Ford Mondeo. Its appearance can be considered a revolutionary event. This car, designed by the European branch of Ford Motor Company, was established on the basis of a fundamentally new design technologies. The essence of this technical revolution – into a powerful software product called NWR, which is a set of computer systems design, computer-aided design and an extensive information database. Today, Ford Motor Company has its manufacturing, assembly and shopping centers in 30 countries. The company annually produces millions of cars, trucks and tractors, and is a leader in automobile sales outside of North America. Ford Motor Company sells more than 70 different models of cars around the world under the brands produced ford, Lincoln, Mercury, Jaguar and Aston Martin. The company has also a share in the shares of Mazda Motor Corporation and Kia Motors n.Corporatio The “Big Three” US automobile business “Ford Motor” occupies the second place in terms of sales.

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