“FIAT» (FIAT, Fabrica Italiana Automobili Torino), the largest Italian automobile corporation. It produces cars, sports cars, trucks and various industrial and agricultural equipment. Corporations also belong to the company for the production of aerospace products. Headquartered in Turin. The company was founded in 1899 by a group of investors, among them Giovanni Agnelli (Giovanni Agnelli), and began assembling cars under license “Renault” with engine “De Dion”. The organization of production Agnelli from the beginning brought his socialist ideals of the possibility of cooperation between employers and workers. In 1903, Italy were eliminated tariffs on imported steel, which has led to a rapid expansion of production: there were the original cars taxis, trucks and buses, and started production of engines for aircraft and ships. Cars Fiat, designed for elite customers, reached the constant popularity not only in Italian, but also in the global market. At the same time, the brand “Fiat” has won recognition and in motor racing, finishing, led by brands such as the “Lancia”, “Storero”, “Miller” and “Nazzaro”. For the first time in Europe automotive company FIAT loudly declared itself as an original manufacturer model S61 with a 10.5-liter engine, winning the Grand Prix race in Fratsnii in 1911. Soon Giovanni Agnelli concluded that it is necessary to move forward from the artisanal to the industrial production and in 1912 launched a full-scale production of cars under the brand FIAT He is one of the first to understand that every automaker needs its own style, which is to develop the artist-stylist. The pioneer of this ideology has become a model Tipo Zero 1912 Design car originality did not differ and was similar to models of other companies. And to give a “face” machine individuality, Agnelli ordered his craftsmen to develop six different facings radiator. FIAT and Alfa Romeo were the first to order the body to its serial production of such masters as locative and Torretta (Locati & Toretta), and then at Zagato and Touring (Touring). From the beginning, Fiat has established production and manufacturing abroad. An example is the plant “Poughkeepsie” in the United States, which was opened in 1909. This approach is totally reflect the views of Giovanni Agnelli, had already planned to develop methods to increase control over the system of production. The result was a draft “Lingotto” – in those days the biggest automobile complex in Europe, which began production in 1922. This project was based on a strategy: make a car not designed for the elite and accessible only to a few and the mass production of the car. This was accomplished thanks to a completely new principles of industrial organization of production based on the assembly line konveyrnogo type. The First World War brought the leader of the Italian FIAT automobile production. By the early 1920s, Fiat had become the largest company in Italy. In many ways, I contributed to this, and a skilled administrator of the company Vittorio Valletta. But in 1919-1920 years, Fiat and personally Agnelli had to go through a series of powerful strikes, accompanied by seizure of factories and offices. The leaders of the insurgent workers were communists Antonio Gramsci and Palmiro Togliatti. Production was virtually destroyed. After coming to power of Mussolini Agnelli returns to management. In 1927 he created holding company IFI, for controlling FIAT. The leading role played in the holding company and to this day the family Agnelli. In 1932 debut “Balilla” production of which soon reached the number of 113,000 pieces. In 1936 it appears “Topolino» (Topolino, or “FIAT 500”), two-seater with an engine displacement of 569 cm3, the smallest car in the world, launched in mass production. First were invented by the shape and volume of the body, and only after that the engineer Dante Giacosa (Dante Giacosa) began to ponder the order of the underneath of all components and assemblies chassis with rear-wheel drive by constructing them as short and light frame with the holes in the longitudinal members to reduce weight . The necessary rigidity to purchase only after attachment to the frame tilting. This famous car from 1936 to 1955, has sold 519,000. Various models of the machines were designed to raise interest in them in Italy and thus cause a general increase in the number of cars. During World War II, the company FIAT was significantly destroyed, and after the liberation of Italy nationalized. However, Vittorio Valletta continued to actually run the company. After the war, with the conveyor when it started production boom, began to descend the mass of new models: a two-door sedan Fiat 500, Fiat wagons 1100 B and 1500 D, and a year later, and the Fiat 500 C, 1100 E and 1500 E. 50s began with the start of production of Fiat 1400 model with a monocoque body, which, since 1953, was the first Italian car, and also offers a diesel version. In the same year on “Mirafiori” released sedan 1100/103 and versatile 103 TV. After half a decade small “Seicentos” and “Cinquecentos” change the face of Italy, making the car affordable to everyone. Issued by millions, these cars provided Italians rest of the world and became a symbol of the economic miracle, embodied in the industrial transformation of the country. In the early 60s the company once privatized. At the head of the group are John grandchildren. Agnelli senior, Umberto and Giovanni Jr., bringing new approaches to the organization of production. Given the far-sighted intuition management personnel, the company has released a compact car Fiat 850 made in the amount of 3 million units. In 1966, Giovanni Agnelli, grandson of the founder, became chairman of the company and initiated a number of projects to strengthen the company’s position in the global market. Nearly destroyed Fiat in the 20s. Production capacity is 2000 124 cars a day. FIAT firmly entered our lives with the construction of the Volga car, which gave the country many millions of cars, a huge number of jobs at the main plant and component manufacturers. Fiatovskuyu WHA model produces up to now. For “2105” and “2106” on the technical content almost twins 124th “fiat.” So we can safely say this concern as “shefe” Soviet passenger automobile industry. It is impossible to imagine today’s freeways and city streets without the “Zhiguli”. Moreover, when “Fiats” sold abroad (export performance), thanks to a lower price, they successfully competed with the “Italians”. Many prefer “the classics” that is FIAT 124 in the past. FIAT 124 was voted car of the year as many as in 1967 – 30 years ago. A successful model! In 1969, Fiat includes the company “Lancia”. At the same time, the parallel emergence of different models, starting with “Dino” and ending with 128, 130, 127 and 126 series, Fiat built factories for the production of cars in the South of Italy, Poland and Brazil, spread around the world Italian avtomobilnoenou-how including the experience gained after the acquisition of such famous brands as “Autobianchi” and “Lancia”. In the period covered by the oil crisis of the 70s, the focus was on improving finished products and production processes that help to achieve a higher level of automation and set up production by using more effective methods of motor industry. Production of “Ritmo”, begun in 1978 thanks to “Robogate”, the revolutionary automation system, brought the company to a new level. The turning point in the history of the automobile concern “Fiat” began in 1983, when he first was released the famous “Uno”, the car will offer a wide range of innovations: in electronics, in the use of alternative materials, device, engine, etc. In 1980 in Geneva, it was presented compact car FIAT Panda. For 20 years, the production company FIAT proposed 60 model variants Panda. The total number of cars produced – 4 million. Pieces. Despite his rather unassuming appearance, Panda was developed in studio ItalDesign under the direction of Maestro D. Giugiaro. Today, this model is one of the cheapest in Western Europe. FIAT Uno debuted in March 1983 in Geneva. That range of “number one” – Uno remained the most popular in the Apennine peninsula for more than a decade. FIAT Uno removed from the production line in Italy in May 1995 and handed over to the Polish production plant FlAT-Polsca (former FSM) in Bielsko-Biala, the Turkish unit TOFAS-FIAT, as well as the Egyptian branch of El Nasr, where these models are produced and today. On the Italian pipeline FIAT Uno replaced heir – FIAT Punto. Large front-drive Fiat Croma, represented mainly by the Italian automaker in December 1985, a hatchback with a stepped rear door, comfortable and roomy trunk, the so-called, this model has been designed on a single, as it was then called, “pan-European” platform “TIPO 4?, which is still based Lancia Thema, SAAB 9000 and Alfa Romeo 164. Model Croma lasted on the assembly line until 1996, when the demand for it fell completely and FIAT considered unnecessary to continue their presence in the classroom. In 1986, Fiat Group acquires “Alfa Romeo” and its branches, thus strengthening its position in the global market. Company policy allowed soon introduce to the market a new model Alfa 164, which found an echo in the hearts of ardent fans of the legendary brand. After the Alfa 164 followed by a series of models, among which was the Alfa 156, Issue which established in 1997 and became the Car of the Year. The five-door hatchback Tipo debuted in January 1988, a streamlined three-volume four-shestiokonny sedan Tempra – in February 1990, five-door wagon Tempra Station Wagon (as it was called FIAT Tempra) and van RIT Marengo – in May 1990. These models are made on a single platform, but their design is somewhat different. At the same technological platform concern FIAT issued and similar in size, but more expensive and prestigious model segments C and D – Lancia Delta and Alfa Romeo 33, and Lancia Dedra with Alfa 155. In appearance resembles Tipo magnified scale previous bestseller market – FIAT Uno and yet the prestigious title of “Car of 1989” was awarded to him. However, broad market acceptance Tipo never received. In October 1995, range Tipo Tempra and replaced in Italy for a family of models Bravo/Brava and magician. Punto/Sporting front-drive compact car (3- and 5-door hatchback). The most popular in the class, 17 basic models (including convertible). GT – the most powerful version. Debut – Fall 1993. The new generation of this model – in July 1999. Fiat Coupe sports coupe based on the Fiat Bravo is one of the cheapest models of this type. Coupe Turbo – the most powerful version with high performance and max. speed of 250 km/h, a competitor compressor Mersedes-Benz CLK and Porsche Boxter. The first model was introduced in November 1993. In the summer of 2000 at the Turin Motor Show was shown the new equipment Coupe 2,0 20V Turbo Plus with a 220-horsepower engine and 6-speed gearbox. FIAT Ulysse, a minivan with a transverse engine and front wheel drive. Produced jointly by Peugeot/Citroen and Fiat/Lancia. Premiere extensive family 7-8-seater monocab increased capacity within the joint project U60 company FIAT and PSA Group was held in January 1994. Production of all models based on a common platform, conducted at the new plant in northern France NordSEVEL. In early 1996, the market was represented cargo and passenger family (U64) mini-vans FIAT Scudo/Citroen Jumpy/Peugeot Expert, unified on the chassis and body with a partially mini venami family U60. Platform U64 replaced Short wheelbase FIAT Talento. For the first time Fiat Barchetta was introduced in the spring of 1995 at the Geneva Motor Show and is recognized as the most beautiful convertible saloon. This front-wheel drive convertible sports – spider with an open or removable hard-top; It is made on the basis of Fiat Punto, Fiat’s joint development and design company Pininfarina. In the summer of 2000 at the Turin Motor Show was shown “luxury” complete set Barchetta Riviera. Fiat Bravo/Brava, automobiles of class with a transverse engine and front wheel drive. The latest generation of hatchback Golf-class (segment C, on the European classification) concern FIAT introduced in September 1995. And very well – a two-pronged Bravo/Brava won the honorary title of “Car of 1996”. Fiat Marea model of European class D, sozdannayana platform Brava, but last longer and roomier. “Luxury” version HLX has a driver’s seat with electric adjustment, two side airbags and stereo equipment class “hi-fi” with six speakers. The first model byda presented in July 1996. In 1998, specially for has developed “Arctic” version Fiat Marea. FIAT Palio (Siena – Argentine modification Fiat Palio) compact small car. The first model was introduced in 1996. Initially, the car produced in Brazil, from 1997 – in Argentina and Poland. In 1997, it started production of the model station wagon. In 1998, the versatile Fiat Palio began to supply the European market. In 2000 he joined a wagon Weekend 3- and 5-door hatchback Palio. In March and April 1998 in Turin was presented FIAT Seicento, compact car. Like Panda, this car is a European size class A. Produced in Poland, sold on the European market. Produced basic versions: Young, S, SX, Citymatic, Suite, Sporting, as well as electric Seicento Elettra. The first model Multipla was presented in autumn 1998. This minivan middle class – the first-in-class car of this type. Revived the name of a compact car bench 50s. In the summer of 2000 a new series of Special with a high level of equipment. In October 2000, the company issued a Utility Model Doblo at the Paris Motor Show. This machine is offered in both passenger and in freight performance (Doblo Cargo). In Italy Stilo sold to 6 October 2002. The three-door hatchback, which replaces the model Bravo, is addressed to fans of active driving. In turn, the five-door car (he was replaced by Fiat Brava) – it is a “family” option. Fiat Stilo will be issued within six – seven years. The total planned production capacity – 2.5 million cars. Concern is gradually acquired a bankrupt company, and today under the “roof” FIAT gathered and FERRARI, and LANCIA, and ALFA ROMEO. Belong to it and several tractor plants.