BMW, “Bayerisch Motoren Werke», (BMW, Bayerisch Motoren Werke AG), a German automobile company, specializing in the production of passenger cars and sports cars, off-road vehicles and motorcycles. Headquartered in Munich. In 1913, on the northern outskirts of Munich, Karl Rapp and Gustav Otto, the son of the inventor of the internal combustion engine Nikolaus August Otto, create two small aircraft engine company. The outbreak of World War I immediately brought numerous orders for aircraft engines. Rapp and Otto decided to unite in a single aircraft engine plant. Thus arises the plant in Munich aircraft engines, which in July 1917 registered the name Bayerische Motoren Werke («Bavarian Motor Works») – BMW. This date is considered the founding year of BMW, and Karl Rapp and Gustav Otto by its creators. After the First World War the firm was on the verge of collapse, t. To. The Treaty of Versailles prohibited the Germans produce engines for aircraft, namely the engines at the time were the only production BMW. But enterprising Karl Rapp and Gustav Otto find a way out – the plant have shifted to production of first motorcycle engines and then motorcycles and themselves. In 1923 with the BMW plant goes first motorcycle R32. On motosalone 1923 in Paris, this first BMW motorcycle immediately won a reputation for fast and reliable car, which was confirmed by the absolute speed record in international motorcycle racing 20s-30s. At the same time developing the engine «Motor-4”, the final assembly is done in other European countries. In 1919 Franz Diemer on the plane with this engine, rising to a height of 9760 meters, set the first world record of BMW. Production gains additional momentum after the conclusion of a secret agreement with Soviet Russia for the supply of its latest aircraft engines. Most Soviet record flights 30s were carried out on aircraft equipped with engines of BMW. In 1928 the company acquires a car factory in Eisenach (Thuringia), and with them the license to manufacture compact car Dixi (it was licensed English Austin 7). Its production begins with 1929. Dixi – the first car BMW. In times of economic hardship minicar becomes the most popular car in Europe. By the beginning of World War II BMW – one of the fastest growing companies in the world, producing equipment with a sports orientation. She has several world records: Volfgang von Gronau in the open seaplane Dornier Wal, equipped with engine BMW, crosses the North Atlantic from east to west, Ernst Henne on a motorcycle R12, equipped with a propeller-driven, hydraulic shock absorbers and telescopic fork (invention BMW), sets the world speed record for motorcycles – 279.5 km / h, not surpassed by anyone over the next 14 years. In 1933, started production of the model “303” – the first of the BMW 6-cylinder engine. This model first acquires a characteristic radiator grille. popularly called the “nostrils” BMW. These nostrils become typical design element of all cars BMW. In 1936 in the BMW produced the famous “328” – one of the most successful sports cars. For that time it was just avant-garde gadgets: tubular frame, six-cylinder engine with a head unit of light alloys, the new system valve train with barbells. On the 328 model, BMW is so famous in the second half of 30th. that all future vehicles with a proprietary two-color sign perceived by the public as a symbol of high quality, reliability and beauty. With its appearance was finally formed the ideology of BMW, to this day defines the concept of the new models: “The car – for the driver.” However, the main competitor, the “Mercedes-Benz”, adheres to the principle: “The car – for the passengers.” Since each firm has its own way, arguing that it was her choice is correct. The winner of the great variety of events – circuit racing, rally competitions in raising the hill, – BMW 328 was addressed to connoisseurs of a sports car, and left far behind all production sports cars. 1938 – BMW acquires license for engines Pratt – Whitney. Then developed a model 132, which is set on the famous Junkers YU52. In the same year it created the fastest pre-war model of motorcycle, 60 hp and a maximum speed of 210 km / h. In 1939, the German rider Georg Meier became the champion of Europe on this motorcycle. And for the first time a foreigner in a foreign motorcycle wins the British race “Senior Tourist Trophy”. The war leads to the suspension of vehicles. Priority is given to new aircraft engines. In 1944 the world’s first BMW begins production of jet engine BMW 109-003. There are also tests of rocket engines. The end of the Second World War was a disaster for the group. Four factory caught in the eastern zone of occupation, destroyed and dismantled. Head factory in Munich dismantled by the British. In connection with the production during the war engines and missiles winners issued an order banning the production of three years. And Karl Rapp and Gustav Otto, will not change his love for motors, decide to start again from scratch. Developed one-cylinder motorcycle R24, gather in the handicraft workshops practically. He becomes the first post-war product BMW. In 1951, it appears the first post-war passenger car model “501”. However, financial success it brings. In 1955 it begins production model R 50 and R 51, opening up a new generation of motorcycles with a fully sprung undercarriage exits compact car “Isetta” strange symbiosis motorcycle with a machine. Three-wheeled vehicle with a door that opens forward movement, was a huge success in the impoverished post-war Germany. But because of the ensuing hobbies large limousines and related losses firm is on the verge of collapse. This is the only case in the history of BMW, was calculated incorrectly when the economic situation and discarded cars on the market were not in demand. This raises the question of the sale of the company. “Mercedes-Benz” hastened to announce its purchase, but it prevented the small shareholders, the employees of the company and its sales agents. Restructure the capital, BMW manages to continue its activities. The third time the firm begins all over again. 1956 – designer Albrecht Graf Goertz, who lives in New York, creates a sensational car – the handsome sports. “BMW has beaten even the Italians.” – Because the newspapers in 1956, when he was presented with this car. BMW 507 roadster offered and how, and with a rigid roof. The eight-cylinder aluminum engine with 3.2 liters 150 hp accelerates the car up to 220 km per hour. Total number of such vehicles from 1956 until 1959 were sold 252 pieces. Today it is one of the rarest and most expensive vintage cars. 1959 – with the new model of the BMW 700 air-cooled concern was able to overcome the internal crisis and create a basis for the continued success of the brand as a whole. Success was achieved not only in sales. Coupe version has enabled BMW to achieve sporting victories. In 1962 the concept of the 1500 -light. compact. sports. four-door car – has been accepted in the market with such enthusiasm. that the production capacity can not meet the demand for these cars. In 1966, first introduced two-door 1600-2. He served as a basis for creating a successful series of models from 1502 to 2002 with a turbocharger. The success of the “new class” contributed to the development of the entire range. The BMW was able to afford to revive the tradition of the 30s and start producing six-cylinder models. In 1968, the premiere took place on the models 2500 and 2800 have allowed BMW to re-enter the number of enterprises. producing large sedans. In this way. 60s were the most successful in the entire previous history of the company. In 1969 BMW transfers motorcycle production to Berlin. Starting a new series mototsiklov- “oppositus.” In 1976, a motorcycle R100 RS is first established the full-size fairing. In 1983, it produced one of the most popular models of motorcycles – the K100 with a 4-cylinder engine with liquid cooling and fuel injection. In the centenary year of the motorcycle, in 1985, the factory in Berlin produces more than 37 thousand motorcycles. In 1989 comes the presentation of K 1 motorcycle. In the 1970s, there are the first cars of famous series BMW – Model 3 Series, 5 Series, 6 Series, 7 Series. With the release of the 5 Series began production of the new generation models of BMW. If earlier the Company has mainly niche performance car, but now he took his place in the segment of luxury sedans. Coupe 3.0 CSL. which in 1973 he won six European championships. BMW allows little success. This coupe hides a multitude of technical innovations. It was first established six-cylinder BMW engine with four valves per cylinder. and its braking system has been equipped with brakes – perfect novelty in those days. In 1977, a new breakthrough in the class “luxury”. With the introduction of the 7-Series ended in principle upgrade all series BMW. Since 1986, the BMW M3 is the most successful car for the road-racing circuit in the world. The compact two-door model designed as a parallel to serial production and motorsport. The result was a triumph for BMW. In 1987, the Italian Roberto Ravil wins first place in the world championship road-racing circuit. And over the next five years, BMW M3 dominated the sports scene. In 1987, the new roadster, which was originally conceived simply as an experimental model, continued the tradition of BMW Roadster ’30s and’ 50s. BMW Z1 was built in 8000 copies and became the bearer of cutting-edge technologies. The aerodynamics of the car was also exemplary level. In 1987, BMW was the first in the world uses an electronic power control system of the engine. In 1990 the new coupe dream: BMW 850i. Heart of this elegant coupe class “lux” became a twelve-cylinder engine, which with any revolutions could literally shoot the car forward. Brand new integral rear axle quite unique way combined the sports highest quality and comfort. In the year of German reunification group, founded the company BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH, returns to its roots in the field aviamotorostroeniya, and in 1991 presents the new BR-700 aircraft engine. In the early 90-ies on the market there are sport compact cars, the third generation of the 3 Series coupe 8th series. A good step for the company was the purchase in 1994 of 2.3 billion. DM Industry Group Rover Group («Rover Group”), and together with it the UK’s largest complex for the production of car brands Rover, Land Rover and MG. With the purchase of this company’s list of BMW added the missing cars and ultra-low-class SUVs. From 1995 to the standard equipment of all BMW cars included the airbag for the front passenger and the engine immobilizer system. In March of this year, put into production station wagon (touring) 3 Series. The new car is distinguished not only by modern design, but also the most advanced technology. For example, the first time in the automotive chassis almost entirely be made of aluminum. Also, 1995 – The debut of the new 5-Series BMW. The main principle in its development – the creation of a harmonious concept. The new car is distinguished not only by modern design, but also the most advanced technology: for the first time in the automotive chassis was made almost entirely of aluminum. The use of new materials made it possible to increase the degree of utilization of the vehicle up to 85 per cent. Extremely rigid body provide an unparalleled level of passive safety. In 1996 BMW Z3 model 7 Series for the first time equipped with a diesel engine. A unique synthesis of dynamic and classic design is simply delicious concept. Car creates additional advertising the film “Golden Eye”, which travels to the Z3 007 superspy James Bond. BMW Z3 became a bestseller. The new plant in Spartanburg does not have time to fulfill all orders. In 1997, a bike that can not leave indifferent – The R 1200 C, is an entirely new interpretation of a road bike. The sensational design combines traditional and futuristic elements. He received the largest ever produced boxer engine BMW. Its working volume is 1170 cc. and developed capacity of 61 hp In the same year BMW presents another car dream. This is the M roadster, which like no other is the true incarnation of a thoroughbred sports car open. In 1997, BMW introduced the dream car that made jump heart experts. M Roadster embodies the ideal of the thoroughbred sports car like no BMW before. Its 321-hp engine M3 ensures exciting driving. In spring 1998, the fifth generation of the successful debut of the 3 Series sedans. Redesigned in a variety of parts, the new 3 Series offers not only an exceptional appearance, but also the most modern engines, new suspension technology and best-in-class safety standards. Beginning in 1999 marked the debut of the BMW X5, which became the world’s first Sports Activity Vehicle (Sports Activity Vehicle): the machine that uniquely combines elegance and practicality, thus opening up a new dimension of mobility. And another first: BMW Z8, a great sports car, celebrated its premiere in 1999 and delighted fans of the James Bond film “The World Is Not Enough.” In 1999, BMW also presented a surprise motoring enthusiasts at the Frankfurt Motor Show, providing a futuristic concept Z9 gran turismo. Currently, BMW, which started with a small aircraft engine plant manufactures its products in five factories in Germany and twenty-two subsidiaries scattered around the world. This is one of the few car companies are not using robots in factories. The entire assembly is on the conveyor manually. At the exit – only computer diagnostics of the basic parameters of the car.